Mastoiditis is an inflammation of mastoid process (bone), the portion of the temporal bone of the skull that is behind the ear. Mastoid process contains open, air-containing spaces. Mastoiditis used to be a leading cause of child mortality.
Mastoiditis can be acute, chronic or recurrent.
CAUSES OF MASTOIDITIS
- In most cases, Mastoiditis is caused by certain gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci pyrogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, etc. Gram-negative bacteria can rarely cause Mastoiditis.
- Mastoiditis is usually caused by the infection of the middle ear, which is called acute otitis media. Infection from middle ear spreads to the air cells of the mastoid process.
- Mastoiditis may be the result of blockage of ear drainage. A skin tumor in the middle ear called Cholesteotoma may block the ear drainage.
- Perforation of tympanic membrane may also lead to Mastoiditis.